「プロジェクト・フラ」 ソ連の北方四島占領、米が援助 極秘に艦船貸与し兵士訓練も

ソ連の北方四島占領、米が援助 極秘に艦船貸与し兵士訓練も(北海道新聞) – Yahoo!ニュース 2017/12/30(土) 8:30配信
https://headlines.yahoo.co.jp/hl?a=20171230-00010001-doshin-hok

「プロジェクト・フラ」作戦 北海道の根室振興局が調査

【根室】1945年8、9月に行われた旧ソ連軍による北方四島占領作戦に、米国が艦船10隻を貸与していたことを、根室振興局が米国とロシアの専門家による研究成果などを突き合わせ、明らかにした。米国はソ連の対日参戦に備え、大量の艦船の提供だけでなく、ソ連兵の訓練も行っており、米国の強力な軍事援助が四島占領の背景にあったことが浮かび上がった。

振興局の調査結果によると、樺太南部の返還と千島列島の引き渡しと引き換えに、ソ連の対日参戦が決まった45年2月のヤルタ会談の直後、ともに連合国だった米ソは「プロジェクト・フラ」と呼ばれる合同の極秘作戦をスタートさせた。

米国は45年5~9月に掃海艇55隻、上陸用舟艇30隻、護衛艦28隻など計145隻の艦船をソ連に無償貸与。4~8月にはソ連兵約1万2千人を米アラスカ州コールドベイの基地に集め、艦船やレーダーの習熟訓練を行った。コールドベイには常時1500人の米軍スタッフが詰め、ソ連兵の指導に当たったという。

訓練を受けたソ連兵と貸与艦船は樺太南部や千島列島の作戦に投入された。8月28日からの択捉、国後、色丹、歯舞の四島占領作戦には、米の貸与艦船10隻を含む17隻が参加。ソ連軍は各島で日本兵の武装解除を行い、四島の占領は9月5日までに完了した。

こうした歴史的史実が判明したのは、根室振興局が2015年度から取り組む北方領土遺産発掘・継承事業がきっかけ。各国の資料を集める中で、ソ連が樺太南部と千島列島での作戦に投入した全艦船を調べ上げたイーゴリ・サマリン氏(現ロシア・サハリン州戦勝記念館科学部長)の論文「1945年8月のサハリンとクリール諸島上陸作戦に参加した軍艦と補助船舶の注釈付きリスト」(2011年3月)を入手した。

北海道新聞

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「プロジェクト・フラ」作戦

Soviet_US_signalmen
A Soviet Navy signalman (left) receives training from a U.S. Navy signalman at Cold Bay, Territory of Alaska, during the secret Project Hula training-and-transfer program. in 1945.

Fort_Randall_Army_Airfield_1942
Fort Randall at Cold Bay, Territory of Alaska, in 1942. Project Hula took place here in 1945. The head of the bay itself is at center right.

USS_Hoquiam_(PF_5)
The Tacoma-class patrol frigate USS Hoquiam (PF-5) at Mare Island Navy Yard, Vallejo, California, on 14 June 1944. Transferred at Cold Bay on 16 August 1945, she became EK-13 in the Soviet Navy, and was returned to the United States in 1949. The patrol frigates were the largest, most heavily armed, and most expensive ships transferred in Project Hula.

Admirable-136
The minesweeper USS Admirable (AM-136) was transferred at Cold Bay on 19 July 1945, becoming T-331 in the Soviet Navy.

Popov_Maxwell_cake
Soviet Navy Rear Admiral Boris Dmitrievich Popov, commander of the 5th Independent Brigade of Soviet Navy Ships at Cold Bay, cuts a cake while his counterpart, Captain William Stewart Maxwell (right), commanding officer of U.S. Navy Detachment 3294 at Cold Bay and overall commander of Project Hula, and members of their staffs look on during a party in Popov’s honor on Memorial Day, 30 May 1945, probably at Dutch Harbor, Alaska.

Popov_on_minesweeper
Rear Admiral Popov speaks aboard an unidentified Admirable-class minesweeper during the ship’s transfer ceremony, probably on 21 or 22 May 1945.

USS_YMS-143
The U.S. Navy auxiliary motor minesweeper USS YMS-143 when new in February 1943. Transferred at Cold Bay on 17 May 1945, she became T-522 and took part in the Soviet conquest of the Japanese province of Karafuto on southern Sakhalin Island between 11 and 25 August 1945. T-522 served in the Soviet Navy until stricken in July 1956 and dismantled for spare parts.

USS_LCI(L)-551
The large infantry landing craft USS LCI(L)-551 in May 1945, flying her colors at half-mast in honor of the recently deceased President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Transferred to the Soviet Navy at Cold Bay on 29 July 1945, she became DS-48 and took part in the Soviet invasion of the Kuril Islands. The Soviet Union returned her to the United States in 1955.

USS_LCI(L)-585_USS_LCI(L)-591
The large infantry landing craft USS LCI(L)-585 and USS LCI(L)-591 at Cold Bay in the spring of 1945, awaiting transfer to the Soviet Navy, in which they became DS-45 and DS-35, respectively. The Soviets returned LCI(L)-585 to the United States in 1955; DS-35 was sold for scrap in the Soviet Union.

USS_SC-1011
The submarine chaser USS SC-1011 off Terminal Island, California, in July 1943. Transferred at Cold Bay on 17 August 1945, she served as BO-327 in the Soviet Navy until stricken in 1955.

USS_YR-74
The floating workshop USS YR-74 was not among the Project Hula ships, but the United States transferred four YRs identical to her at Cold Bay in the summer of 1945.

LCIL(L)s_lower_US_flag
The U.S. flag is lowered aboard LCI(L)s as the U.S. Navy decommissions them for immediate transfer to the Soviet Union at Cold Bay on 9 June 1945.

LCI(L)s_raise_Soviet_naval_ensign
The Soviet naval ensign is raised aboard the LCI(L)s at Cold Bay as they are commissioned into the Soviet Navy immediately after their transfer on 9 June 1945. Redesignated desantiye suda (DS) or “landing ship,” these craft saw action against Japanese forces during the Soviet campaign in northern Korea in August–September 1945.
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